The building and construction industry uses several types of adhesives and sealants. These can be classified by their application and setting methods, and they have traditionally included the following:
Solvent-based (applied as a solvent solution and converted to an adhesive when the solvent evaporates);
Water-based (applied as an emulsion and converted to an adhesive when the water evaporates);
Reactive (applied as a one- or two-component liquid and converted to an adhesive through crosslinking);
Hot melt (applied as a molten film and converted to an solid when the molten material gels).
Construction adhesive can also be divided into 2 types:
Non structural adhesives, which are used to bond decorative materials, such as floor and wall coverings, and other materials which do not need very high strength ( some panels, fiber and particle boards, trim, some interior doors...These adhesives may be emulsion or dispersion adhesives, neoprene contact adhesives, solvent based adhesives, natural and renewable adhesives and glues...
Structural adhesives i.e. those which give at least 5 to 8 MPa in tensile shear strength, and which are required for structural parts such as bonding of concrete to concrete, ceramic tiles to concrete, masonry, construction panels, outside doors, sealing metal parts into concrete, civil engineering, composite bonding ( FRP panels ), metal bonding, structural glass...These latter may be epoxy adhesives, structural PU, silicones, structural acrylics... All construction adhesives used on site should cure or dry at ambient temperatures i.e. 12 to 35 °C according to seasons and countries, because there is no heating devices on sites.
Sealants are related to adhesives, but their primary function is to prevent the flow of liquid or air. Similar to adhesives, they are applied as either a solvent-based, water-based, hot melt, or reactive high viscosity mastic and converted to an elastomeric sealant.